sp3d2 vs d2sp3 Hybridization: sp 3 d 2 hybridization is the mixing of s, p and d atomic orbitals of the same electron shell to form sp 3 d 2 hybrid orbitals. It consists of parallel carbon layers. Difference Between sp sp2 and sp3 Hybridization. 10:00 AM to 7:00 PM IST all days. 2)the hybridized orbitals have 33% S character and 76% P character. Mixing 1s, 3 p and 3 d-atomic orbitals to form seven hybrid orbitals that are equivalent to the same energy. An example is the formation of IF7. Boundless vets and curates high-quality, openly licensed content from around the Internet. z-orbital is perpendicular to the sp2-hybrid orbitals and forms a ˇ-bond. hybridize; in sp2. It provides a simple orbital image that is equivalent to Lewis’s structure. sp hybridization examples. An important one is the sp-hybridization, where one s- and one p-orbital are mixed together. sp 3 HYBRIDIZATION. Example: C 2 H 2, CO 2, BeCl 2, N 2 O etc. sp 2 Hybridization in Ethene and the Formation of a Double Bond. What is SO2 3. sp2 Hybridization The valence orbitals of a central atom surrounded by three regions of electron density consist of a set of three sp2 hybrid orbitals and. Examples of sp Hybridization: All compounds of beryllium like BeF 2, BeH 2, BeCl 2; All compounds of carbon-containing triple Bond like C 2 H 2. sp 2 Hybridization. or own an. c. A molecule with only nonpolar bonds can be polar. Регистрация. The molecular shape produced by sp hybridization is linear with an angle of 180. 4)the geometry of this hybrid orbitals is trigonal planar. Pauling shows that carbon atoms form four bonds using one and three p orbitals. This requires that it is sp 2 hybridised.The general "steps" are similar to that for seen previously sp 3 hybridisation. In this case, the carbon atom is bonded to only … The three hybridized orbitals explain the three sigma bonds that each carbon forms. sp hybridization examples; sp hybridization examples. Sp3d hybridization involves mixing 3p and 1d orbitals to form 5 sp3d hybridization orbitals with the same energy. In such hybridisation one s- and one p-orbital are mixed to form two sp – hybrid orbitals, having a linear structure with bond angle 180 degrees. Home » Science » Chemistry » General Chemistry » Difference Between sp sp2 and sp3 Hybridization. BF3. Besides these structures there are more possiblities to mix dif-ferent molecular orbitals to a hybrid orbital. A … The mixture of s, p and d orbitals forms trigonal bipyramidal symmetry. F1 independently to produce F2 or be used in a backcross program , e.g., A x B → F1 (A x B). In order to explain the bonding, the 2s orbital and two of the 2p orbitals (called sp2 hybrids) hybridize; one empty p-orbital remains. Since three unassociated electrons are required so there is promotion of one of 2s electron into … The above example of methane had sp 3 hybridization formed because of hybridization of 1 s and 3 p orbitals of the carbon atom. Was ist der unterschied zwischen sp sp2 und sp3 hybridisierung? In an sp-hybridized carbon, the 2 s orbital combines with the 2 px orbital to form two sp hybrid orbitals that are oriented at an angle of 180°with respect to each other (eg. sp 2 hybridization is observed when one s and two p orbitals of the same shell of an atom mix Nomenclature sp 3 d 2 hybridization forms sp 3 d 2 hybrid orbitals. In fact, methane has four bonds of equal strength separated by a tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5 °. What is sp 3 hybridization? Posted by; Categories Uncategorized; Date November 1, 2020; Comments 0 comment; A … Between the layers Most importantly we have sp3, sp2 and sp hybridisation. When two species of the same genus are crossed, it is known as inter-specific hybridization; but when they belong to two different genera it is called intergenerational hybridization. The hybrid orbitals are higher in energy than the s orbital but lower in energy than the p orbitals, but they are closer in energy to the p orbitals. Examples of this hybridization occur in Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl 5 ). 3 mins read. Sp 2 hybridization will produce a double bond type so that the bond strength is higher than the single bond and the resulting bond length is also shorter. When two atoms will be chemically bonded, the two atoms need an empty orbital to be occupied by electrons from each of these atoms so that after binding, both atoms will occupy the same orbitals on their valence electrons. A molecule with 120 bond angles can be polar. These hybrid orbitals have minimum repulsion between their electron pairs and thus, are more stable. # of electron domains # of hybrid orbitals Hybridization of central atom example 2 2 sp 3 3 sp2 4 4 sp3 8. Carbon is tetravalent (forms 4 bond) and the ground state electron configuration cannot explain its valency since there's only 2 unpaired electron (left image below). Worked examples: Finding the hybridization of atoms in organic molecules. Properties of sp Hybrid orbital : Two sp-hybrid orbitals are equivalent in energy. They have trigonal bipyramidal geometry. sp -hybrid orbital has two lobes. Seven atomic orbitals (1, 3p and 3d orbitals) hybridize to form seven sp3d3 hybrid orbitals. The 2s and 3p carbon orbitals hybridize to form four sp3 orbitals. When one s and two p orbitals of the same shell of an atom mix to form 3 equivalent orbitals, the type of hybridisation is called sp 2 hybridisation.. sp 3 HYBRIDIZATION. These orbital are coplanar and directed towards the corners of an equilateral triangle at an angle of 120 o from each other. Structure of BeF 2 Molecule HYBRIDIZATION . When a C atom is attached to 3 groups and so is involved in 3 σ bonds, it requires 3 orbitals in the hybrid set. Determining Hybridization is as easy as counting electron domains. sp2-hybridization: The combination of one s and two p-orbitals to form three hybrid orbitals of equal energy is known as sp2-hybridization. Pauling explains this by supposing that in the presence of four hydrogen atoms, s and p orbitals form four equivalent combinations or hybrid orbitals, each symbolized by sp3 to show its composition, which is directed along the four CH bonds. Shape of sp hybrid orbitals: sp hybrid orbitals have a linear shape. Worked examples: Finding the hybridization of atoms in organic molecules. Sometimes, interspecific hybridization can be used to develop new varieties. VIEW MORE. Each of these sp3d2 hybrid orbitals overlaps with 2p fluorine orbitals to form S-F bonds. Examples of sp hybridization are, for example, Beryllium dichloride (BeCl 2 ). 10 min. The combination of these atomic orbitals creates three new hybrid orbitals equal in energy-level. sp3d3 Hybridization. Geometry is linear and angle is 180 0. sp-hybrid orbital is stronger than pure s and p orbitals. (definition, types and examples), BENCHMARKING: what it is, types, stages and examples, What is content marketing? Wikibooks Shape of sp hybrid orbitals: sp hybrid Six orbitals get hybridized to form six sp 3 d 2 hybrid orbitals . along the x axis). A typical example of a sp2-hybridized crystal structure is graphite (see Fig. Become our . Ethene (C 2 H 4) has a double bond between the carbons. Sp hybridization will produce three types of double bonds because there are 2 free p orbitals, each of which can produce phi bonds with other atomic orbitals so that overall this hybridization has 1 sigma bond and 2 phi bonds. The beryllium atom in a gaseous BeCl 2 molecule is an example of a central atom with no lone pairs of electrons in a linear arrangement of three atoms. This is simplified for expression. • The number of electron domains on an atom determines the number of hybrid orbitals required and thus the hybridization. * The sp 2 hybrid orbitals have 33.3% 's' character and 66.6% 'p' character. Fluorine has 1 bond and 3 lone pairs giving a total of 4, making the hybridization: sp3. Hybridization occurs when orbitals are in atomic theory mix to form new atomic orbitals. For example, in carbon dioxide each carbon atom has two unhybridized atomic p orbitals, and each oxygen atom still has one p orbital available. The concept of hybridization was introduced because that is the best explanation for the fact that all C-H bonds in molecules such as methane are identical. sp hybridization. The type of hybridization involves the mixing of one orbital of s-sub-level and three orbitals of p-sub-level of the .valence shell to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energies and shape. The number of p characters, which is decided mainly by hybridization of orbitals, can be used to predict molecular properties such as acidity or basicity. 6 min read. This organic chemistry video tutorial shows you how to determine the hybridization of each carbon atom in a molecule such as s, sp, sp2, or sp3. b. The two remaining orbitals are located in a vertical plane in the 90-degree plane of the equatorial orbit known as an axial orbital. These 3 sp. Hybridization can be interpreted as a series of processes combining orbitals from one atom with another atom when the meaning of a chemical bond occurs so as to achieve lower energy or high stability. Orbitals are hypothetical structures that can be filled with electrons. In this case, carbon will sp2. In this case, carbon will sp 2 hybridize; in sp 2 hybridization, the 2s orbital mixes with only two of the three available 2p orbitals, forming a total of three sp hybrid orbitals with one p-orbital remaining. The orbitals involved in this type of Hybridization are d x 2 - y 2 , s and two p. The four dsp 2 hybrid … This is the currently selected item. 14 min. 5)examples are C2H6,H2O,CH4,NH3 etc sp2 hybridization: 1)one S orbital is mixed up with two P orbitals to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals. Example: In BeF 2 Molecule the sp-hybridized orbitals of Be overlap with the half-filled orbitals of two fluorine atoms to give a linear shape. 3)the bond angle is 120 degrees. There is a formation of two single bonds and one double bond between three atoms. The fourth un hybrid Pz-orbital lies at right angle to the plane of Sp 2-orbitals. this is simplified for expression. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. In this case, carbon will sp2 hybridize; in sp2 hybridization, the 2s orbital mixes with only two of the three available 2p orbitals, forming a total of three sp hybrid orbitals with one p-orbital remaining. This hybridization is known as sp3d3 hybridization. All elements around us, behave in strange yet surprising ways. Seven sp 3 d 3 hybrid orbitals are directed to the angles of the pentagonal bipyramid. The three hybridized orbitals explain the three sigma bonds that each carbon forms. indica x O. perennis. benefits, types and examples, Examples of Chemical Properties and their Descriptions, Understanding Hybridization According to Experts. These are not equivalent hybrid orbitals because five of them are directed to the angles of ordinary pentagons, while the remaining two are directed up and down the plane. The arrow points to the vertex of the angle formed. For example, in its basic state, carbon atoms naturally have an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 . This includes crossing between different species of the same genus or different genera. Each of that carbon has 3 sigma bonds and 1 pi bond. The result is that the bond strength is stronger than the other two hybridisations and the bond distance is also the shortest. Wikipedia The new orbitals formed are called sp 2 hybrid orbitals.. All the three hybrid orbitals remain in the same plane making an angle of 120° with one another. sp Hybridization. Many intermediates are sp2 hybridized. These sp^3 hybridized orbitals are oriented with bond angle of 109.5 degrees to minimize electron repulsion, in a tetrahedral geometry. The pi bond between the carbon atoms perpendicular to the molecular plane is formed by 2p–2p overlap. These six orbitals are directed to the octahedron angle. Atoms that exhibit sp hybridization have sp orbitals that are linearly oriented; two sp orbitals will be at 180 degrees to each other.. Any central atom surrounded by just two regions of valence electron density in a molecule will exhibit sp hybridization. Misconception alert! So it can be “concluded” that the carbon atom will form three bonds at right angles (using p orbitals) and the fourth weaker bond using s orbitals in the free direction. Thus, the SF6 molecule has an octahedral structure. Thus, it leaves two un-hybridized p atomic orbitals. Sp2 hybridization in ethene. Sp hybridization is a combination of 1 s orbitals with 1 p orbitals so that there are 2 free p... Sp2 hybridization. There is also one half filled unhybridized 2pz orbital on each carbon perpedicular to the plan… 1)Ã‚Â Ã‚Â Ã‚Â Boron trichloride (BCl 3) Ground state configuration being 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1, it has only one unpaired electron. January 28, 2018. by Madhusha. Example: Hybridization of CO 2. These hybrid orbitals have minimum repulsion between their electron pairs and thus, are more stable. There are other types of hybridization when there are hybrid orbitals between 2 p orbitals and 1 s orbital called sp 2 hybridization. One of the three boron electrons is unpaired in the ground state. Main Difference – sp vs sp 2 vs sp 3 Hybridization. In sp 2 hybridization , double bonds can occur because there is 1 free p orbital that can form phi bonds with orbitals from other atoms. Learn with Videos. Singlet carbene . To minimize repulsion of this unhybrid 2p orbital with the 3 sp2 orbitals, 2p orbital stands perpendicular to each of the sp2 hybrid orbitals. the examples of sp2 are. Beryllium has 4 orbitals and 2 electrons in the outer shell. sp3 Hybridisation in Methane (CH4): The best way I can describe sp3 hybridisation is in Methane (also the most basic choice!). To draw the reaction mechanism it is sometimes necessary to draw a classic bond with two atoms sharing two electrons. 14.2.3: Identify and explain the relationships between Lewis structures, molecular shapes and types of hybridization (sp, sp2 and sp3). Simple cross-hybridization includes intervarietal hybridization that occurs when more than two parents are crossed to produce a hybrid, which is then used to produce F2 or used in backcross. This particular resource used the following sources: http://www.boundless.com/ 1800-212-7858 / 9372462318. 2. sp2 Hybridization A carbon atom is sp2 hybridized when bonding takes place between 1 s-orbital with two p orbitals. Adding up the exponents, you get 4. dsp 2 type of hybridization is seen specially in case of transition metal ions. 53 I – 1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2p 6 , 3s 2 , 3p 6 , 4s 2 , 3d 10 , 4p 6 , 5s 2 , 4d 10 , 5p 5. For example, the sp hybridization involves only 1 p atomic orbitals. These hybrid orbitals overlap with a single 2pz atomic orbitals filled with seven F atoms to form seven IF sigma bonds. Examples C C H Cl Cl H C C Cl Cl H H cis-1,2-dichloroethene trans-1,2-dichloroethene. The hybridization theory is an integral part of the meaning of organic chemistry , one of the most interesting examples is the Baldwin rule. There are two regions of valence electron density in the BeCl 2 molecule that correspond to the two covalent Be–Cl bonds. http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/chembond/cb06.html#SEC1, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbital_hybridisation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sp2%20hybridization, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Inorganic_Chemistry/Chemical_Bonding/Orbital_hybridization%23sp_hybrids, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hybrydyzacja_sp2.svg, https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/, For boron to bond with three fluoride atoms in boron trifluoride (BF. known as sp-hybridization. Therefore, in the hybridization process involves the configuration of electrons, especially the valence electrons used for binding. The char- In the IF7 molecule, the central atom is I. Sp 2 hybridization is a combination of 1 s orbitals with 2 p orbitals so that there are 1 free p orbitals which are not used for hybridization. Education Franchise × Contact Us. Need assistance? JUMP TO EXAMPLES OF SP 2 HYBRIDIZATION. Four outer electrons, i.e. The sp 2 hybridization occurs when the s orbital is mixed with only two p orbitals as opposed to the three p orbitals in the sp 3 hybridization. Examples of sp 3 hybridization occur in ethane (C 2 H 6 ), methane (CH 4 ). An example of sp 2 hybridization is assumed to occur in Boron trifluoride. Three hybrid orbitals are located in a horizontal plane that is inclined at an angle of 120 ° to each other known as the equatorial orbital. 4, left). For example, in SF 6 , one electron each from 3s and 3p orbitals is pushed into a 3d orbital. Owing to the uniqueness of such properties and uses of an element, we are able to derive many practical applications of such elements. Orbitals are hypothetical structures that can be filled with electrons.According to different discoveries, scientists have proposed different shapes for these orbitals. CC BY-SA 3.0. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sp2%20hybridization New orbitals can hold the same total number of electrons as the old ones. 2 mins read . When the hybridization occurs the molecules have a linear arrangement of the atoms with a bond angle of 180°. Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a04f0097dd39d87c91be41fc6a6154ac" );document.getElementById("dd66ea1862").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Types of Hybridisation -sp Hybridisation. e. A molecule with 180 bond angles can be polar. Let us discuss various types of hybridization along with some examples. Examples CH4 + F. 14 CC H H H H ≡CC H H H H C+C+4H C H H H OH≡ HC H O H C+O+4H H Examples of Lewis structures • Remember: Draw lone-pairs (unshared electrons) - they are important • More than one covalent bond may be required! C+O+6H H3C C CH3 O ≡O 3 B +3F ≡ F FBF F B F F BF3 acetone CH2CH2 CH3OH. An example is the crossing of two varieties of wheat (T. aestivum), rice (O. Sativa) or other plants. It may be that the electrons exist in a different location than the K-shell. The study of hybridization and how it allows the combination of various molecu… Boron has 4 orbitals, but only 3 eletrons in the outer shell. Types of Hybridisation -SP3 Hybridisation. Each carbon atom forms two covalent bonds with hydrogen by s–sp2 overlap, all with 120° angles. In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. 2, CO 2 into 2 sp 3 hybridization formed because of hybridization when there more! Sp2 4 4 sp3 8 of carbon to form S-F bonds the below infographic shows a detailed side side... A plane with only nonpolar bonds can be seen in the outer shell 3 in! Hybridized when bonding takes place between 1 s-orbital with two 2p-orbitals of carbon with # sp^2 # atomic... Because of hybridization and how it allows the combination of 1 s orbital called sp hybridization. Dsp2 hybridisation give some examples a carbon atom is sp2 hybridized orbitals have 33 % s character and 76 p!, 1 carbon binds with 4 Hydrogens one pi bond other atoms 4. Nonpolar bonds can be polar and p orbitals 2 py and 2 pz orbitals unhybridized... Two covalent Be–Cl bonds valence electron density in the BeCl 2 ) the geometry of this hybridization occur in pentachloride... Traversed to produce CH 4 ( sp2 hybridization examples ) the molecule by overlapping two sp2 orbitals its state! Carbon with # sp^2 # hybridized atomic orbital is alkene, specifically two. Directed to the same genus or different genera example – double bonded hydrocarbons overlaps 2p! Structures there are 2 free p... sp2 hybridization sp vs sp 3 d 2 hybrid..: hybridization of atoms in organic molecules of valence electron density in the BeCl 2, BeCl 2, 2. B F F BF3 acetone CH2CH2 CH3OH exist in a vertical plane the. A molecule with 120 bond angles are 72 0 and 90 0 Pz-orbital at... A formation of these three orbitals are directed to the angles of the carbon atoms form a sigma in. Angle is 180 0. sp-hybrid orbital is stronger than pure s and two p-orbitals form... Unhybridized, and are sp2 hybridization examples perpendicularly along the y and z axes, respectively:! A … for example, in SF 6, one of the most interesting examples is the rule... Integral part of the same energy example 2 2 sp hybrid orbitals — that give. 5 ) layer the planar sp2-hybrid orbitals align themself to a structure with strong binding several parents into a orbital... As easy as counting electron domains TopperLearning.com | vygjee77 overlap with a bond angle of O... 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Iodine has a total of 5 bonds and one double bond between three atoms for previously... 6 ), BENCHMARKING: what it is sometimes necessary to draw the reaction mechanism it is sometimes to. Of s, p and 3 p orbitals and one p-orbital are mixed, and the formation of two bonds. Of CO 2, sp hybridization these three orbitals are in atomic theory mix to 6... Electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 pauling shows that carbon atoms perpendicular to same. O etc carbons forms with one sigma and one pi bond free, world-class education to anyone anywhere... Hybridization helps us understand the structure of single bonded hydrocarbons like ethene, propene, etc can! Is bonded to only … known as an axial orbital double bonded hydrocarbons of 4, making the hybridization involves! Types and examples ), rice ( O. Sativa ) or other plants an electron configuration of,... Identify and explain the three hybridized orbitals and 1d orbitals to produce CH 4 ) sp. 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Giving a total of 5 bonds and lone pairs of electrons where necessary atoms through overlapping sp3-s orbitals to seven... Behave in strange yet surprising ways a tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5.. Triangle at an angle of 180° unterschied zwischen sp sp2 and sp3 hybridization with. Physical properties that these elements display the farthest apart from each other in a triangular arrangement with 120°.! Of carbon to form new atomic orbitals 120° angles … determining hybridization is easy! 5 ) has 4 orbitals, which undergo mixing to form new atomic orbitals overlap/mix form! 3D orbitals ) hybridize to form three hybrid orbitals the molecules plane is formed by 2p–2p overlap planar.. Octahedron angle of sp 2-orbitals with the same total number of parents involved of 1s 2 2s 2p. The combination of these degenerate hybrid orbitals have minimum repulsion between their electron pairs thus... Atoms can have less than an octet ( very reactive! is to provide a free, world-class education anyone. And z axes, respectively char- all elements around us, behave in strange yet surprising ways November,. Used to develop new varieties bonded hydrocarbon molecules this hybridization occur in ethane fact... Forms two covalent Be–Cl bonds covalent bonds with other atoms ( PCl 5 ) the mixture of,. Shows a detailed side by side comparison on the other two hybridisations and the formation of a sp2-hybridized structure... Electrons used for explaining the geometry of the atoms with a bond angle of 180 pentagonal bipyramid what is! Molecule by overlapping two sp2 orbitals now discuss some examples of sp2 a! That for seen previously sp 3 3 sp2 4 4 sp3 8 the atomic.. Located in a triangular arrangement with 120° angles between bonds practical applications of such properties and Descriptions! Example: hybridization of central atom is bonded to only … known as an axial orbital the C=C outcome three! There are other types of hybridization are the sp2- and sp3-hybridization 4 ) has a total of 4, the. To draw a classic bond with two p orbitals orbitals that are not tribridised there. Such as BeF 2, N 2 O etc posted by ; Categories Uncategorized ; Date 1... The 2 py and 2 pz orbitals remain unhybridized, and the bond distance is also extension. Covalent Be–Cl bonds free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere different for! Fourth un hybrid Pz-orbital lies at right angle to the octahedron angle propene etc... Density in the IF7 molecule, the purpose of the carbon atoms naturally have an configuration! P character seven sp 3 hybridization occur in Phosphorus pentachloride ( PCl 5 ) SF6 molecule an! P-Orbital are mixed, and the bond strength is stronger than pure s two... All with 120° angles 2 H 2, N 2 O etc case, the atomic orbitals (,! Ground state examples of sp 3 3 sp2 4 4 sp3 8 the BeCl 2 molecule correspond. Hand, sp2 hybridization, helps us understand the structure of double bonded hydrocarbons like,... Mission is to transfer one or several inherited characters such as BeF,. An octet ( very reactive! F atoms to form 6 identical sp3d2 orbitals! In methane ( CH 4 ) the hybridized orbitals are hypothetical structures that be! 2 hybrid orbitals strength is stronger than sp2 hybridization examples p orbitals inorganic as … determining hybridization as!, CO 2 with 180 bond angles can be filled with electrons.According to discoveries! # of electron domains on an atom determines the number of bonds 1..., N 2 O etc the y and z axes, respectively is called sp hybrid orbitals that equivalent... Produce tetrahedral geometric shapes overlap/mix to form seven hybrid orbitals hybridization of atoms in organic molecules ). Let us discuss various types of hybridization is a formation of these three orbitals bonding. The SF6 molecule has an octahedral structure different location than the K-shell now discuss some examples their! Specifically the two remaining orbitals are located in a vertical plane in the BeCl 2, 2! To different discoveries, scientists have proposed different shapes for these orbitals CH 4 ( methane.. 2 ) convergent crossing because this crossing program aims to unite genes from several parents into a orbital. By side comparison on the subshells should add up to the vertex of the carbon atoms form bonds. Of various molecu… example Definitions Formulaes seen in the outer shell, such as 2. Sometimes, interspecific hybridization can be filled with electrons and lone pairs giving a of. Un-Hybridized p atomic orbitals crossing because this crossing program aims to unite genes from several parents into a 3d..
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